Figure 12. (A–D) Effects of JDTL on IRS-1/PI3K/Akt protein expression. (A) in INS-1 cells. (C) in HepG2 cells. Cell lysates were subjected to Western blot analysis using GAPDH as loading control. (B, D) Quantification of band intensities relative to that of GAPDH bands using Image J software. Values are expressed as means ± SD from three independent experiments. ***P < 0.01. #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01, ###P < 0.001 as compared to the model.