Figure 1. DNA methylation levels at the BMPR2 promoter were significantly increased in the VHD group compared with the control group. (A) Average levels of DNA methylation of 10 CpG sites at the BMPR2 promoter of the VHD group of 55 patients were compared with those of the healthy control group of 28 people. (B) The mean BMPR2 DNA methylation levels of the patient cases with different pulmonary artery pressure (PASP) were significantly increased compared with the controls. Moderate/severe PAH, PASP ≥ 55 mmHg. Mild PAH, 30mmHg ≤ PASP < 55 mmHg. (C) The operation type of MVR or AVR had no effect on the BMPR2 promoter DNA methylation levels. MVR, Mitral valve replacement; AVR, Aortic valve replacement. (D) The mean BMPR2 methylation levels were not different comparing male VHD patients with female VHD patients. For statistical comparisons, **P < 0.01. ***P < 0.001.