Figure 4. Shunt-associated pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) model was established and evaluated in mice with abdominal shunt. (A) A pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) mouse model was generated by the abdominal shunt technique. (A-1), a mouse was shown for undergoing the surgery to create a shunt-associated pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) mouse model. The intestine of the mouse intestinal tube (blue arrow) was pushed aside to allow the abdominal aorta (black arrow) and inferior vena cava (thin green arrow) to be exposed for operation. (A-2), a magnified image of the surgical site in (A-1) for the operation to induce the pulmonary artery hypertension. After surgery, red blood flowed past the proximal heart end of the inferior vena cava (V, thin green arrow), indicating the success of the surgery. Black arrow, abdominal aorta (A). (B) There was not much change in the average mouse weight in the PAH model group compared with that in the control group when they were measured in about 8 weeks after the surgery. (C) The pulmonary artery pressure was increased in the PAH mice compared with the control mice when they were examined in 8 weeks after surgery. (D) Right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) was measured and compared between the PAH mice and the controls in 8 weeks after surgery. *P < 0.05.