Review Volume 13, Issue 23 pp 25578—25587

G-Quadruplexes and the DNA/RNA helicase DHX36 in health, disease, and aging


Figure 1. G-Quadruplex structure, strand arrangement, and interactions with DHX36. (A) Tracts of guanines form planar arrangements via Hoogsten-bonding into G-quartets (blue) and are stabilized by a cation bonded to oxygen molecules in the center (Na+ or K+). Multiple G-quartets then stack to form G-quadruplexes (G4), in varying strand arrangements. (B) DHX36 regulates telomere maintenance, translation including non-AUG translation and RNA trafficking. DHX36 appears to regulate transcription and likely modulates replication (depicted with the question mark). The question marks also indicate that the direct binding of DHX36 to telomeric G4s and G4s in gene promoters in vivo remains to be shown. DHX36 is also involved in the innate immune response. Thus, multiple biological processes are influenced, including development, immunity, tumorigenesis, aging, and neurodegeneration.