Figure 2. Early life stress produces gut defects and increases gut permeability, leading to translocation of LPS and gut microbiota. LPS can aggravate the body’s inflammatory response and increase the risk of depression. Probiotics and SCFA can reverse this process and reduce the risk of depression. Abbreviations: LPS: lipopolysaccharide; SCFA: short-chain fatty acid; ELS: early life stress; IL-1β: interleukin-1β; IL-6: interleukin-6; IL-10: interleukin-10; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor-α.