Review Volume 13, Issue 23 pp 25588—25601

Influence of early life stress on depression: from the perspective of neuroendocrine to the participation of gut microbiota


Figure 2. Early life stress produces gut defects and increases gut permeability, leading to translocation of LPS and gut microbiota. LPS can aggravate the body’s inflammatory response and increase the risk of depression. Probiotics and SCFA can reverse this process and reduce the risk of depression. Abbreviations: LPS: lipopolysaccharide; SCFA: short-chain fatty acid; ELS: early life stress; IL-1β: interleukin-1β; IL-6: interleukin-6; IL-10: interleukin-10; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor-α.