Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 23 pp 25342—25364

Protective effects of galangin against H2O2/UVB-induced dermal fibroblast collagen degradation via hsa-microRNA-4535-mediated TGFβ/Smad signaling


Figure 2. Galangin attenuates H2O2-induced HS68 cell senescence rather than apoptosis. (A) HS68 cells were exposed to different doses of H2O2 (50, 100, 200, 300, 400 μM) for 24 h. Apoptosis and survival-related markers were detected by western blot. (B) Annexin V & PI stained cells were analyzed by flow cytometry to identify the apoptotic cells under H2O2 exposure. (C) HS68 cells were exposed to H2O2 (200 μM) for 1 h and then treated with galangin (30 μM) for 23 h. Aging markers such as p16 and p21 were detected by western blot. GAPDH was used as a loading control. (D) Senescent cells were detected using a senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) detecting kit. SA-β-gal-positive cells are shown in green color. (C) Values are shown as mean ± SE. Quantification of the results is shown (n = 3) **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 vs. untreated control cells; ##P < 0.01, ###P < 0.001 vs. H2O2-treated cells.