Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 23 pp 25440—25452

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles perturb the blood-testis barrier via disruption of actin-based cell adhesive function


Figure 5. The effect of TiO2-NPs on TM-4 cell apoptosis. (A) TUNEL results revealed no apoptosis signals (red fluorescence) in TM-4 cells treated with TiO2-NPs. (B) Caspase 3/8/9 activity in cells treated with TiO2-NPs showed no obvious changes. The results were expressed as the mean ± SEM. n=4, Scale bar=20 μm.