Review Volume 14, Issue 9 pp 4176—4187

Hallmarks of cancer and hallmarks of aging


Figure 4. Hierarchical hallmarks of aging based on hyperfunction theory, universal. Hyperfunction of intracellular signaling pathways leads to cellular and systemic hyperfunctions, which in turn lead to age-related diseases on the organismal level [56]. Specific hyperfunctions and diseases may be different in different species and therefore are not shown. For example, human systemic hyperfunctions (e.g., hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia) and diseases (e.g., cardio-vascular diseases) differ from diseases in C elegans [40, 41].