Research Paper Volume 14, Issue 22 pp 8914—8926

Glutaminase inhibitors rejuvenate human skin via clearance of senescent cells: a study using a mouse/human chimeric model


Figure 4. BPTES treatment promotes the removal of skin senescent cells and cell proliferation from human skin grafts. (A) Immunofluorescence staining for p16 or Ki67 in tissue sections of human skin grafts from pre-transplanted aged human skin, treated with control (DMSO) or BPTES. Red: p16, Ki67; Blue: DAPI. The percentage of p16- or Ki67-positive dermal cells at a depth of 100 μm from the epidermal basement layer was counted with DAPI. All results are expressed as mean ± SEM. *p < 0.05. Bar = 100 μm. (B) Relative p16 and p21 mRNA levels were analyzed using RT-qPCR in skin sections of the indicated mice. *p < 0.05. (C) Western blot analysis of p16 and p21. (D) Quantitative analysis of western blot. Band densities normalized against endogenous control GAPDH are shown. *p < 0.05. Graph shows mean ± SEM of three independent experiments.