Research Paper Volume 15, Issue 18 pp 9499—9520

M2 macrophage-derived exosomal miR-486-5p influences the differentiation potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and osteoporosis


Figure 6. miR-486-5p regulates BMMSC differentiation through the TGF-β signalling pathway. (A) Western blot analysis of the protein levels of osteogenic and TGF-β signalling pathway-related molecular elements after different treatments. (B) The mRNA levels of osteogenic genes after different treatments. (C) ALP activity assays were performed to analyse ALP activity in the treated BMMSCs on days 0, 3, and 7. (D) ALP staining was performed on day 14, and Alizarin red staining showed increased calcification on day 21 after different treatments. Scale bars, 200 μm. (E, F) Western blotting and qRT-PCR were performed to analyse the expression levels of adipogenic factors after different treatments. (G, H) Oil red O staining and extraction were performed on day 10 of adipogenic differentiation after different treatments. Scale bars, 200 μm. Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.005.