Research Paper Volume 15, Issue 18 pp 9499—9520

M2 macrophage-derived exosomal miR-486-5p influences the differentiation potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and osteoporosis


Figure 7. Schematic diagram showing the proposed mechanisms by which exosomal miR-486-5p derived from M2 macrophages regulates the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of BMMSCs. miR-486-5p enrichment in M2D-Exos enhances the inhibitory effect on SMAD2, resulting in downregulation of the TGF-β signalling pathway and thereby accelerating bone remodelling.