Research Paper Volume 15, Issue 18 pp 9797—9808

Investigating the causal effect of Dickkopf-1 on coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke: a Mendelian randomization study


Figure 3. Analysis of the single- and multi-SNP effects on the development of CAD and IS. (A) DKK1-CAD; (B) DKK1-IS. In the forest map, each black dot represents a single SNP as instrumental variable and the red dot shows the use of IVW results for all SNPs. DKK1, Dickkopf-related protein 1; CAD, coronary artery disease; IS, ischemic stroke; SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism; IVW, inverse variance weighted.