Research Paper Volume 15, Issue 18 pp 9797—9808

Investigating the causal effect of Dickkopf-1 on coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke: a Mendelian randomization study


Figure 4. Sensitivity analyses using the leave-one-out approach on the association of DKK1 with CAD and IS. (A) DKK1-CAD; (B) DKK1-IS. Each black dot represents an IVW method to estimate the causal effect of the exposures on the CAD and IS. The presence of a particular SNP causing a significant change in the overall results is not excluded. DKK1, Dickkopf-related protein 1; CAD, coronary artery disease; IS, ischemic stroke; SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism; IVW, inverse variance weighted.