Research Paper Volume 15, Issue 18 pp 9310—9340

Pathways explaining racial/ethnic and socio-economic disparities in dementia incidence: the UK Biobank study


Figure 1. Conceptual framework. Abbreviations: ALCOHOL: Alcohol consumption z-score; COGN: Poor cognitive performance, z-score; DIET: Diet quality z-score; HEALTH: Poor cardio-metabolic and general health z-score; LE8BIOLOGICAL: Biological sub-scale of Life’s Essential 8; LE8LIFESTYLE: Lifestyle sub-scale of Life’s Essential 8; LIFESTYLE: Lifestyle factors including DIET, PA, SMOKING, ALCOHOL, NUTR and SS; NUTR: Nutritional biomarker z-score; PA: Physical Activity z-score; SES: Socio-economic status; SMOKING: Smoking z-score; SS: Social Support z-score.