Research Paper Volume 16, Issue 8 pp 7387—7404

New insights from bidirectional Mendelian randomization: causal relationships between telomere length and mitochondrial DNA copy number in aging biomarkers


Figure 3. The influence of sample overlap on the bias of MR analysis results and type I error. (A) corresponds to the outcomes of the forward MR analysis, while (B) represents the findings from the reverse MR analysis.