Research Paper Volume 16, Issue 8 pp 7387—7404

New insights from bidirectional Mendelian randomization: causal relationships between telomere length and mitochondrial DNA copy number in aging biomarkers


Figure 4. Flow diagram of the process for the bidirectional two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism; N, number of SNPs; mtDNA, mitochondrial DNA.