Research Paper Volume 3, Issue 11 pp 1078—1091
Yeast-like chronological senescence in mammalian cells: phenomenon, mechanism and pharmacological suppression
- 1 Department of Cell Stress Biology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, BLSC, L3-312, Buffalo, NY, 14263, USA
received: September 15, 2011 ; accepted: December 9, 2011 ; published: December 10, 2011 ;https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.100402
How to Cite
In yeast, chronological senescence (CS) is defined as loss of viability in stationary culture. Although its relevance to the organismal aging remained unclear, yeast CS was one of the most fruitful models in aging research. Here we described a mammalian replica of yeast CS: loss of viability of overgrown “yellow” cancer cell culture. In a density and time (chronological)-dependent manner, cell culture loses the ability to re-grow in fresh medium. Rapamycin dramatically decelerated CS. Loss of viability was caused by acidification of the medium by lactic acid (lactate). Rapamycin decreased production of lactate, making conditioned medium (CM) less deadly. Both deadly CM and lactate caused loss of viability in low cell density, not preventable by either rapamycin or additional glucose. Also, NAC, LY294002, U0126, GSK733, which all indirectly inhibit mTOR and have been shown to suppress the senescent phenotype in traditional models of mammalian cell senescence, also decreased lactate production and decelerated CS. We discuss that although CS does not mimic organismal aging, the same signal transduction pathways that drive CS also drive aging.