We studied the role of peroxisomal catalase in chronological aging of the yeastHansenula polymorpha in relation to various growth substrates. Catalase-deficient (cat) cells showed a similar chronological life span (CLS) relative to the wild-type control upon growth on carbon and nitrogen sources that are not oxidized by peroxisomal enzymes. However, when media contained methylamine, which is oxidized by peroxisomal amine oxidase, the CLS of cat cells was significantly reduced. Conversely, the CLS of cat cells was enhanced relative to the wild-type control, when cells were grown on methanol, which is oxidized by peroxisomal alcohol oxidase. At these conditions strongly enhanced ROS levels were observed during the exponential growth phase of cat cells. This was paralleled by activation of the transcription factor Yap1, as well as an increase in the levels of the antioxidant enzymes cytochrome c peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Upon deletion of the genes encoding Yap1 or cytochrome c peroxidase, the CLS extension of cat cells on methanol was abolished. These findings reveal for the first time an important role of enhanced cytochrome c peroxidase levels in yeast CLS extension.