TP53, a tumor suppressor gene, plays a critical role in cell cycle control, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair. Previous studies have indicated that the TP53 gene Arg72Pro (rs1042522 C>G) polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to various types of cancer. We evaluated the association of the TP53 gene rs1042522 C>G polymorphism with neuroblastoma susceptibility in a hospital-based study among the Chinese Han population. Enrolled were 256 patients and 531 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) generated using logistic regression models were used to determine the strength of the association of interest. No association was detected between rs1042522 C>G polymorphism and neuroblastoma risk. In our stratification analysis of age, gender, sites of origin, and clinical stages, we observed that subjects with rs1042522 CG/GG genotypes had a lower risk of developing neuroblastoma in the mediastinum (Adjusted OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.33-0.82, P=0.005) than those carrying the CC genotype. These results indicate that TP53 gene rs1042522 C>G polymorphism may exert a weak and site-specific effect on neuroblastoma risk in Southern Chinese children and warrant further confirmation.