Research Paper Volume 9, Issue 10 pp 2069—2082
Natural product celastrol suppressed macrophage M1 polarization against inflammation in diet-induced obese mice via regulating Nrf2/HO-1, MAP kinase and NF-κB pathways
- 1 School of Chinese Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
- 2 Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
received: July 4, 2017 ; accepted: October 6, 2017 ; published: October 16, 2017 ;https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.101302
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Copyright: Luo et al. This is an open‐access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Macrophage polarization is implicated in the inflammation in obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine the anti-inflammatory activities of botanical triterpene celastrol against diet-induced obesity. We treated diet-induced obese C57BL/6N male mice with celastrol (5, 7.5 mg/kg/d) for 3 weeks, and investigated macrophage M1/M2 polarization in adipose and hepatic tissues. Celastrol reduced fat accumulation and ameliorated glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Celastrol down-regulated the mRNA levels of macrophage M1 biomarkers (e.g., IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS) in cell culture and in mice. The underlying mechanisms were investigated in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Our results demonstrated that celastrol might control macrophage polarization through modulating the cross-talk between the following three mechanisms: 1) suppressing LPS-induced activation of MAP kinases (e.g., ERK1/2, p38, JNK) in a concentration dependent manner; 2) attenuating LPS-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit in a time dependent manner; 3) activating Nrf2 and subsequently inducing HO-1 expression. HO-1 inhibitor SnPP diminished the inhibitory effects of celastrol on the activation of NF-κB pathway and the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage polarization. Taken together, celastrol exhibited anti-obesity effects via suppressing pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage polarization. Thus, our results provide new evidence for the potential of celastrol in the treatment of obesity.