Functions of Caspases remain obscure in Crustacea. We studied the existence and participations of apoptosis-related factors in Eriocheir sinensis testis. Three Es-Caspases (Es-Caspase 3/ 7/ 8) in E. sinensis were cloned and characterized. We observed that three es-caspases mRNA had specific expression patterns during spermiogenesis, with weak signal around the nucleus and invaginated acrosomal vesicle in early-stage spermatids, became stronger in middle-stage, finally focused on the acrosomal tube and nucleus in mature sperm. We then investigated the immunostaining intensity and positional alterations of Es-Caspase 3, Es-Caspase 8 and p53 during spermatogenesis, which were correlated with the differential tendencies of cells to undergo apoptosis and specific organelles shaping processes. After apoptotic induction by Cadmium, Es-Caspase 8 increased gradually, while Es-Caspase 3 increased firstly and then decreased, Es-p53 initially decreased and then increased. These results implies that Es-Caspase 3/ Es-Caspase 8/ p53 may play roles in Cadmium-induced apoptosis during spermatogenesis, and Caspase 8-Caspase 3-p53 pathway may interact with extrinsic or intrinsic pathways to regulate the destiny of sperm cells. Our study revealed the indispensable roles of Caspases during spermatogenesis and the possible molecular interactions in response to the Cadmium-induced apoptosis in E. sinensis, which filled the gap of apoptotic mechanisms of crustacean.