Research Paper Volume 10, Issue 9 pp 2284—2315
Sumoylation-deficient Prdx6 repairs aberrant Sumoylation-mediated Sp1 dysregulation-dependent Prdx6 repression and cell injury in aging and oxidative stress
- 1 Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA
- 2 Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa Medical University, Ishikawa 920-0293, Japan
received: May 30, 2018 ; accepted: September 6, 2018 ; published: September 12, 2018 ;https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.101547
How to Cite
Copyright: Chhunchha et al. This is an open‐access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Progressive deterioration of antioxidant response in aging is a major culprit in the initiation of age-related pathobiology induced by oxidative stress. We previously reported that oxidative stress leads to a marked reduction in transcription factor Sp1 and its mediated Prdx6 expression in lens epithelial cells (LECs) leading to cell death. Herein, we examined how Sp1 activity goes awry during oxidative stress/aging, and whether it is remediable. We found that Sp1 is hyper-Sumoylated at lysine (K) 16 residue in aging LECs. DNA binding and promoter assays revealed, in aging and oxidative stress, a significant reduction in Sp1 overall binding, and specifically to Prdx6 promoter. Expression/overexpression assay revealed that the observed reduction in Sp1-DNA binding activity was connected to its hyper-Sumoylation due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Sumo1 levels, and reduced levels of Senp1, Prdx6 and Sp1. Mutagenesis of Sp1 at K16R (arginine) residue restored steady-state, and improved Sp1-DNA binding activity and transactivation potential. Extrinsic expression of Sp1K16R increased cell survival and reduced ROS levels by upregulating Prdx6 expression in LECs under aging/oxidative stress, demonstrating that Sp1K16R escapes the aberrant Sumoylation processes. Intriguingly, the deleterious processes are reversible by the delivery of Sumoylation-deficient Prdx6, an antioxidant, which would be a candidate molecule to restrict aging pathobiology.