Transplantation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) can aid in the treatment of numerous diseases in animals. However, natural aging during in vitro expansion of ADMSCs prior to their use in transplantation restricts their beneficial effects. Melatonin is reported to exert biorhythm regulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-senescence effects in various animal and cell models. Herein, by using a senescent canine ADMSCs (cADMSCs) cell model subjected to multiple passages in vitro, we investigated the effects of melatonin on ADMSCs senescence. We found that melatonin alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and cell senescence. MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor inhibitor, luzindole, diminished the mRNA expression levels and rhythm expression amplitude of Bmal1 and Nrf2 genes. Nrf2 knockdown blocked the stimulatory effects of melatonin on endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD)-related gene expression and its inhibitory effects on ERS-related gene expression. At the same time, the inhibitory effects of melatonin on the NF-κB signaling pathway and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) were blocked by Nrf2 knockdown in cADMSCs. Melatonin pretreatment improved the survival of cADMSCs and enhanced the beneficial effects of cADMSCs transplantation in canine acute liver injury. These results indicate that melatonin activates Nrf2 through the MT1/MT2 receptor pathway, stimulates ERAD, inhibits NF-κB and ERS, alleviates cADMSCs senescence, and improves the efficacy of transplanted cADMSCs.