Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common and lethal human malignant tumor worldwide. Platinum-based chemotherapy is still the mainstay of treatment for NSCLC. However, long-term chemotherapy usually induces serious drug resistance in NSCLC cells. Accordingly, treatment strategies that reverse the resistance of NSCLC cells against platinum-based drugs may have considerable clinical value. In the present study, we observed significant upregulation of CAV-1 expression and a significant decrease of miR-204 expression in cisplatin-resistant A549 (CR-A549) and cisplatin-resistant PC9 (CR-PC9) cells compared to their parental A549 and PC9 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the downregulation of miR-204 expression was responsible for CAV-1 overexpression in these cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cells. We then found that enforced expression of miR-204 can resensitize CR-A549 and CR-PC9 cells to cisplatin-induced mitochondrial apoptosis through suppression of the caveolin-1/AKT/Bad pathway. We demonstrated that dysregulation of miR-204/caveolin-1 axis is an important mechanism for NSCLC cells to develop the chemoresistance.