Biochemical processes have been associated with the pathogenesis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia, including chronic inflammation, dysregulation of membrane lipids and disruption of neurotransmitter pathways. However, research investigating biomarkers of these processes in MCI remained sparse and inconsistent. To collect fresh evidence, we evaluated the performance of several potential markers in a cohort of 57 MCI patients and 57 cognitively healthy controls. MCI patients showed obviously increased levels of plasma TNF-α (p = 0.045) and C-peptide (p = 0.004) as well as decreased levels of VEGF-A (p = 0.042) and PAI-1 (p = 0.019), compared with controls. In addition, our study detected significant correlations of plasma sTNFR-1 (MCI + Control: B = -6.529, p = 0.020; MCI: B = -9.865, p = 0.011) and sIL-2Rα (MCI + Control: B = -7.010, p = 0.007; MCI: B = -11.834, p = 0.003) levels with MoCA scores in the whole cohort and the MCI group. These findings corroborate the inflammatory and vascular hypothesis for dementia. Future studies are warranted to determine their potential as early biomarkers for cognitive deficits and explore the related mechanisms.