Formation of aortic aneurysms as a consequence of augmented transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction is a potentially lethal complication of Marfan syndrome (MFS). Here, we examined VSMC senescence in patients with MFS and explored the potential mechanisms that link VSMC senescence and TGF-β. Tissue was harvested from the ascending aorta of control donors and MFS patients, and VSMCs were isolated. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity and expression of senescence-related proteins (p53, p21) were significantly higher in aneurysmal tissue from MFS patients than in healthy aortic tissue from control donors. Compared to control-VSMCs, MFS-VSMCs were larger with higher levels of both SA-β-gal activity and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, TGF-β1 levels were much higher in MFS- than control-VSMCs. TGF-β1 induced VSMC senescence through excessive ROS generation. This effect was suppressed by Mito-tempo, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, or SC-514, a NF-κB inhibitor. This suggests TGF-β1 induces VSMC senescence through ROS-mediated activation of NF-κB signaling. It thus appears that a TGF-β1/ROS/NF-κB axis may mediate VSMC senescence and aneurysm formation in MFS patients. This finding could serve as the basis for a novel strategy for treating aortic aneurysm in MFS.