Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 13 pp 4672—4687
Genome-wide association and evolutionary analyses reveal the formation of swine facial wrinkles in Chinese Erhualian pigs
- 1 State Key Laboratory of Pig Genetic Improvement and Production Technology, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, P.R. China
received: February 27, 2019 ; accepted: July 1, 2019 ; published: July 15, 2019 ;https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.102078
How to Cite
Copyright: Huang et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Wrinkles are uneven concave-convex folds, ridges or creases in skin. Facial wrinkles appear in head, typically increasing along with aging. However in several Chinese indigenous pigs, such as Erhualian pigs, rich facial wrinkles have been generated during the growth stages as one of their breed characteristics. To investigate the genetic basis underlying the development of swine facial wrinkles, we estimated the folding extent of facial wrinkles in a herd of Erhualian pigs (n=332), and then conducted genome-wide association studies and multi-trait meta-analysis for facial wrinkles using 60K porcine chips. We found that facial wrinkles had high heritability estimates of ~0.7 in Erhualian pigs. Notably, only one genome-wide significant QTL was detected at 34.8 Mb on porcine chromosome 7. The most significant SNP rs80983858 located at the 3255-bp downstream of candidate gene GRM4, and the G allele was of benefit to increase facial wrinkles. Evolutionary and selection analyses suggested that the haplotypes containing G allele were under artificial selection, which was consistent with local animal sacrificial custom praying for longevity. Our findings made important clues for further deciphering the molecular mechanism of swine facial wrinkles formation, and shed light on the research of skin wrinkle development in human or other mammals.