Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 18 pp 7723—7745
Neural stem cell small extracellular vesicle-based delivery of 14-3-3t reduces apoptosis and neuroinflammation following traumatic spinal cord injury by enhancing autophagy by targeting Beclin-1
- 1 Department of Orthopaedics, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu, China
- 2 Department of Orthopaedics, Yancheng Third People’s Hospital, Yancheng 224000, Jiangsu, China
received: August 7, 2019 ; accepted: September 5, 2019 ; published: September 28, 2019 ;https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.102283
How to Cite
Copyright © 2019 Rong et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Neural stem cell-derived small extracellular vesicles (NSC-sEVs) play an important role in the repair of tissue damage. Our previous in vitro and in vivo studies found that preconditioning with NSC-sEVs promoted the recovery of functional behaviors following spinal cord injury by activating autophagy. However, the underlying mechanisms for such observations remain unclear. In this study, we further explored the mechanisms by which NSC-sEVs repair spinal cord injury via autophagy. We found that NSC-sEVs contain 14-3-3t protein, of which the overexpression or knockdown enhanced and decreased autophagy, respectively. In addition, 14-3-3t overexpression enhanced the anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of NSC-sEVs, further promoting functional behavior recovery following spinal cord injury. The overexpression of 14-3-3t was used to further validate the in vivo results through a series of in vitro experiments. Conversely, knockdown of 14-3-3t attenuated the anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of NSC-sEVs. Further studies also confirmed that NSC-sEVs increased Beclin-1 expression, with which 14-3-3t interacted and promoted its localization to autophagosome precursors. In this study, we found that NSC-sEVs deliver 14-3-3t, which interacts with Beclin-1 to activate autophagy. Our results indicate that 14-3-3t acts via a newly-discovered mechanism for the activation of autophagy by NSC-sEVs.