Research Paper Volume 11, Issue 21 pp 9661—9671

The increased gray matter volumes of precentral gyri in Parkinson's disease patients with diphasic dyskinesia

Yan Zhi1, *, , Min Wang2, *, , Yong-Sheng Yuan1, *, , Yu-Ting Shen1, , Ke-Wei Ma1, , Cai-Ting Gan1, , Qian-Qian Si1, , Li-Na Wang1, , Sheng-Wu Cao3, , Ke-Zhong Zhang1, ,

  • 1 Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, PR China
  • 2 Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, PR China
  • 3 Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, PR China
* Equal contribution

Received: May 1, 2019       Accepted: October 28, 2019       Published: November 7, 2019
How to Cite

Copyright © 2019 Zhi et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Abnormal dopaminergic modulation of the cortico-basal ganglia motor loops results in the emergence of levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). We focused on alterations in the gray matter (GM) volume and the cortical thickness of the brain, especially in cortico-basal ganglia motor loops, in Parkinson’s disease (PD) with diphasic dyskinesia. 48 PD patients with diphasic dyskinesia, 60 PD patients without dyskinesia and 48 healthy controls (HC) were included. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was applied to get GM images from MRI brain images. FreeSurfer was used to get cortical thickness. Distinct analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) and linear contrasts were performed for early- and late-onset PD groups. The severity of diphasic dyskinesia was evaluated by the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS). Finally, the correlations between mean volumes of clusters showing differences and the UDysRS scores were performed by Pearson’s correlation. The GM volumes of precentral gyri were increased in PD patients with diphasic dyskinesia when compared with those without dyskinesia, which were positively correlated with UDysRS scores in PD patients with diphasic dyskinesia. However, there was no significant difference in cortical thickness among groups. The increased precentral gyri GM volumes might be associated with the pathogenesis and the severity of diphasic dyskinesia.


LID: levodopa-induced dyskinesia; GM: gray matter; PD: Parkinson’s disease; VBM: Voxel-based morphometry; ANCOVA: Analysis of covariance; UDysRS: Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale; AD: Alzheimer’s disease; MMSE: Mini-mental state exam; HAMD: Hamilton Depression Scale; UPDRS: Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale; LEDD: Levodopa equivalent daily dose; MP-RAGE: magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo; TR: Repetition time; TE: Echo time; FA: Flip angle; FOV: Field of view; MNI: Montreal Neurological Institute; FEW: Family-wise error rate; MSNs: Medium spiny neurons; fMRI: Functional magnetic resonance imaging; DTI: Diffusion tensor imaging; H&Y: Hoehn and Yahr.