This study aimed to investigate whether plasma homocysteine levels were associated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), a golden standard of arterial stiffness, in a population from southern China. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 713 patients admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University from February 2016 to August 2017. They were divided into four groups based on gender-specific quartile of homocysteine levels. Age, cfPWV, uric acid levels, and percentage of hypertension increased with ascending quartiles. The duration of hypertension and systolic blood pressure were higher in the highest quartile than in the lowest quartile. Pearson’s correlation analysis and multivariate regression showed a correlation of homocysteine levels with cfPWV. A nearly twofold increased risk of cfPWV ≥10 m/s was observed in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile (in the highest quartile: odds ratio = 2.917, 95% confidence interval: 1.635–5.202, P < 0.001). After stratification, this correlation was present in both sexes, in patients aged over 65 years, and those with hypertension. The plasma homocysteine levels were independently associated with cfPWV in the population from southern China, especially in the elderly and those with hypertension.