Exosomes are small (30–150 nm diameter) lipid bilayer-enclosed vesicles found in all bodily fluids. We investigated whether exosomes play a role in chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). Exosomes were identified and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and NanoSight particle tracking. The functions of hematoma-derived exosomes were evaluated in a rat model of acute subdural hematoma (SDH). The hematoma-derived exosomes inhibited hematoma absorption and exacerbated neurological deficits in SDH rats. We examined the effects of the exosomes on angiogenesis and cell permeability in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Co-culture of exosomes with HUVECs revealed that the hematoma-derived exosomes were taken-in by the HUVECs, resulting in enhanced tube formation and vascular permeability. Additionally, there was a concomitant increase in ANG-2 expression and decrease in ANG-1 expression. Exosomes were enriched with microRNAs including miR-144-5p, which they could deliver to HUVECs to promote angiogenesis and increase membrane permeability. Overexpression of miR-144-5p in HUVECs and in SDH rats promoted abnormal angiogenesis and reduced hematoma absorption, which mimicked the effects of the hematoma-derived exosomes both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, hematoma-derived exosomes promote abnormal angiogenesis with high permeability and inhibit hematoma absorption through miR-144-5p in CSDH.