Abstract

We evaluated the risk status and survival outcomes of 125 elderly acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients treated with decitabine in combination with low-dose cytarabine, aclarubicin, and G-CSF (D-CAG). The risk status was evaluated by determining the frequency of recurring gene mutations using next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of 23 selected genes and cytogenetic profiling of bone marrow samples at diagnosis. After a median follow-up of 12 months (range: 2-82 months), 86 patients (68.8%) had achieved complete remission after one cycle of induction, and 94 patients (75.2%) had achieved it after two cycles. The median overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 16 and 12 months, respectively. In 21 AML patients aged above 75 years, the median OS and DFS were longer in the low- and intermediate-risk group than the high-risk group, but the differences were not statistically significant. The median OS and DFS were similar in patients with or without TET2, DNMT3A, IDH2, TP53 and FLT3 mutations. Multivariate analysis showed that patient age above 75 years, high-risk status, and genetic anomalies, like deletions in chromosomes 5 and/or 7, were significant variables in predicting OS. D-CAG regimen tends to improve the prognosis of a subgroup of elderly patients with high-risk AML.