Leptin signaling influences osteoblastogenesis and modulates the fate of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) during bone and cartilage regeneration. Although MSCs abound in the osteosarcoma (OS) microenvironment, and leptin exhibits pro-tumorigenic properties, leptin’s influence on OS progression and chemoresistant signaling in MSCs remains unclear. Using cell viability and apoptosis assays, we showed that medium conditioned by leptin-treated human MSCs promotes cisplatin resistance in cultured human OS cells. Moreover, GFP-LC3 expression and chloroquine treatment experiments showed that this effect is mediated by stimulation of autophagy in OS cells. TGF-β expression in MSCs was upregulated by leptin and suppressed by leptin receptor knockdown. Silencing TGF-β in MSCs also abolished OS cell chemoresistance induced by leptin-conditioned medium. Cisplatin resistance was also induced when leptin-conditioned MSCs were co-injected with MG-63 OS cells to generate subcutaneous xenografts in nude mice. Finally, we observed a significant correlation between autophagy-associated gene expression in OS clinical samples and patient prognosis. We conclude that leptin upregulates TGF-β in MSCs, which promotes autophagy-mediated chemoresistance in OS cells.