The purpose of this study was to reveal the hypothesis that lncRNA X inactive specific transcript (XIST) can participate in the regulation of cardiomyocyte apoptosis in neonatal mice cardiomyocytes (NMCMs) and myocardial infarction (MI) through targeting miR-101a-3p. NMCMs were isolated from neonatal C57BL/6 mice and anoxia was induced in hypoxic chamber. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to determine proliferation and apoptosis respectively. The target relationship among XIST, miR-101a-3p and FOS was revealed by bioinformatic analysis, luciferase reporter assay, pull-down assay and RNA immunoprecipitation assay. The expression of XIST, miR-101a-3p, FOS and apoptosis-related proteins was determined by qRT-PCR or western blot. MI model was constructed to reveal the role of XIST. We found that XIST was up-regulated in NMCMs under anoxia condition. Moreover, XIST increased FOS expression by sponging miR-101a-3p in anoxia cells. Silencing XIST expression improved cell viability and suppressed apoptosis in vitro and inhibited myocardial infarction by reducing the level of c-FOS and apoptosis-related proteins in vivo. Our findings suggest that XIST is involved in MI, modulation of its level can be used as a new strategy or potential target in the treatment of myocardial infarction.