COVID-19 Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 8 pp 6518—6535

ACE2 correlated with immune infiltration serves as a prognostic biomarker in endometrial carcinoma and renal papillary cell carcinoma: implication for COVID-19

Jing Yang 1, , Hongxia Li 1, , Shengda Hu 1, , Yafeng Zhou 1, ,

  • 1 Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China

received: March 11, 2020 ; accepted: April 4, 2020 ; published: April 27, 2020 ;

https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.103100
How to Cite

Copyright © 2020 Yang et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a member of the renin-angiotension system, however, the correlation between ACE2 and prognosis in UCEC (Uterine Corpus Endometrial Carcinoma) and KIRP (Kidney Renal Papillary Cell Carcinoma) is not clear. We analyzed the expression levels of ACE2 in the Oncomine and TIMER databases, the correlation between ACE2 and overall survival in the PrognoScan, GEPIA and Kaplan-Meier plotter databases. The correlation between ACE2 and immune infiltration level and the type markers of immune cells was investigated in TIMER database. A prognosis analysis based on the expression levels of ACE2 was further performed in related immune cells subgroup. The ACE2 promoter methylation profile was tested in the UALCAN database. In addition, we used GSE30589 and GSE52920 databases to elucidate the changes of ACE2 expression in vivo and in vitro after SARS-CoV infection. ACE2 was elevated in UCEC and KIRP, and high ACE2 had a favorable prognosis. The expression of ACE2 was positively correlated with the level of immune infiltration of macrophage in KIRP, B cell, CD4+T cell, neutrophil and dendritic cell immune infiltration levels in UCEC. ACE2 was significantly positively correlated with the type markers of B cells and neutrophils, macrophages in UCEC, while ACE2 in KIRP was positively correlated with the type markers of macrophages. High ACE2 expression level had a favorable prognosis in different enriched immune cells subgroups in UCEC and KIRP. And the promoter methylation levels of ACE2 in UCEC and KIRP were significantly reduced. What’s more, we found that the expression of ACE2 decreased in vivo and in vitro after SARS-CoV infection. In conclusion, ACE2 expression increased significantly in UCEC and KIRP, elevated ACE2 was positively correlated with immune infiltration and prognosis. Moreover, tumor tissues may be more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection in COVID-19 patients with UCEC and KIRP, which may worsen the prognosis.

Abbreviations

ACC: Adrenocortical Carcinoma; BLCA: Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; BRCA: Breast Invasive Carcinoma; CESC: Cervical and Endocervical Cancer; CHOL: Cholangiocarcinoma; COAD: Colon Adenocarcinoma; DLBC: Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma; ESCA: Esophageal Carcinoma; GBM: Glioblastoma Multiforme; HNSC: Head and Neck Cancer; KICH: Kidney Chromophobe; KIRC: Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma; KIRP: Kidney Renal Papillary Cell Carcinoma; LGG: Lower Grade Glioma; LIHC: Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma; LUAD: Lung Adenocarcinoma; LUSC: Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; MESO: Mesothelioma; OV: Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; PAAD: Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; PCPG: Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma; PRAD: Prostate Adenocarcinoma; READ: Rectum Adenocarcinoma; SARC: Sarcoma; SKCM: Skin Cutaneous Melanoma; STAD: Stomach Adenocarcinoma; TGCT: Testicular Germ Cell Tumors; THCA: Thyroid Carcinoma; THYM: Thymoma; UCEC: Uterine Corpus Endometrial Carcinoma; UCS: Uterine Carcinosarcoma; UVM: Uveal Melanoma; NK cells: Natural killer cells; Th 1 cells: typeIhelper T cells; Treg: regulatory T cells.