Abstract

Purpose: Develop a diabetic nephropathy incidence risk nomogram in a Chinese population with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Results: Predictors included systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, total triglycerides, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and body mass index. The model displayed medium predictive power with a C-index of 0.744 and an area under curve of 0.744. Internal verification of C-index reached 0.737. The decision curve analysis showed the risk threshold was 20%. The value of net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement were 0.131, 0.05, and that the nomogram could be applied in clinical practice.

Conclusion: Diabetic nephropathy incidence risk nomogram incorporating 8 features is useful to predict diabetic nephropathy incidence risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

Methods: Questionnaires, physical examinations and biochemical tests were performed on 3489 T2DM patients in six communities in Shanghai. LASSO regression was used to optimize feature selection by running cyclic coordinate descent. Logistic regression analysis was applied to build a prediction model incorporating the selected features. The C-index, calibration plot, curve analysis, forest plot, net reclassification improvement, integrated discrimination improvement and internal validation were used to validate the discrimination, calibration and clinical usefulness of the model.