Research Paper Advance Articles
Both objective and paradoxical insomnia elicit a stress response involving mitokine production
- 1 Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
- 2 Alma Mater Research Institute on Global Challenges and Climate Change (Alma Climate), University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
- 3 IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Bologna, Italy
- 4 Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
- 5 Laboratory of Systems Medicine of Healthy Aging and Department of Applied Mathematics, Lobachevsky University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Received: February 27, 2020 Accepted: April 28, 2020 Published: May 17, 2020https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.103274
How to Cite
Copyright © 2020 Martucci et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Chronic insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in the elderly population. From 9 to 50% of patients suffer of paradoxical insomnia, with the same symptoms and ailments, though characterized by normal sleep patterns. We have investigated the level of parameters related to stress in a group of post-menopausal female patients (age range 55-70 years) suffering by either objective or paradoxical insomnia, in particular we have measured 24-hours urinary cortisol, allostatic load index, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) score, and, for the first time, mitokines (mitochondrial stress response molecules) such as FGF21, GDF15 and Humanin (HN). Results show that the two groups are different as far as sleep efficiency score, as expected, but not for stress parameters, that in some cases resulted within the normality range, although quite close to the top threshold (such as cortisol) or much higher with respect to normality ranges (such as PSS). Therefore, the consequences of paradoxical insomnia on the expression of these parameters are the same as objective insomnia. As far as the level of mitokines, we showed that FGF21 and HN in particular resulted altered (decreased and increased, respectively) with respect to control population, however with no difference between the two groups of patients.