Aging is a natural human process. It is uniquely individual, taking into account experiences, lifestyle habits and environmental factors. However, many disorders and syndromes, such as osteoporosis, neurodegenerative disorders, cognitive decline etc., often come with aging. The present study was designed to investigate the possible anti-aging effect of N6-(4-hydroxybenzyl)adenine riboside (T1-11), an adenosine analog isolated from Gastrodia elata, in a mouse model of aging created by D-galactose (D-gal) and the underlying mechanism, as well as explore the role of adenosine signaling in aging. T1-11 activated A2AR and suppressed D-gal- and BeSO4-induced cellular senescence in vitro. In vivo results in mice revealed that T1-11 abated D-gal-induced reactive oxygen species generation and ameliorated cognitive decline by inducing neurogenesis and lowering D-gal-caused neuron death. T1-11 could be a potent agent for postponing senility and preventing aging-related neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.