Growing evidence suggests that circRNAs exert a critical role in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying circRNAs in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are still poorly known. Here, circRNA expression profile was investigated by RNA sequencing in TNBC tissues and matched para-carcinoma tissues. We found that circIFI30 was significantly up-regulated in TNBC tissues and cells using quantitative real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. High circIFI30 expression was positively correlated with clinical TNM stage, pathological grade and poor prognosis of TNBC patients. Functionally, a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that knockdown of circIFI30 could markedly inhibit TNBC cell proliferation, migration, invasion and cell cycle progression, induce apoptosis as well as suppress tumorigenesis and metastasis. Up-regulation of circIFI30 exerted an opposite effect. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that circIFI30 might act as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) of miR-520b-3p to abolish the suppressive effect on target gene CD44 by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), dual luciferase reporter assay, RNA immunoprecipitation and RNA pull-down assays. Therefore, our work uncovers the mechanism by which circIFI30 could promote TNBC progression through circIFI30/miR-520b-3p/CD44 axis and circIFI30 could be a novel diagnostic/prognostic marker and therapeutic target for TNBC patients.