Now days, obesity is a major risk factor for intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). However, adipokine, such as chemerin is a novel cytokine, which is secreted by adipose tissue, and are thought to be played major roles in various degenerative diseases. Obese individuals are known to have high concentration of serum chemerin. Our purpose was to study whether chemerin acts as a biochemical relationship between obesity, and IDD. In this study, we found that the expression level of chemerin was significantly increased in the human degenerated nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues, and had higher level in the obese people than the normal people. Chemerin significantly increased the inflammatory mediator level, contributing to ECM degradation in nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs). Furthermore, chemerin overexpression aggravates the puncture-induced IVDD progression in rats, while knockdown CMKLR1 reverses IVDD progression. Chemerin activates the NF-kB signaling pathway via its receptors CMKLR1, and TLR4 to release inflammatory mediators, which cause matrix degradation, and cell aging. These findings generally provide novel evidence supporting the causative role of obesity in IDD, which is essentially important to literally develop novel preventative or generally therapeutic treatment in the disc degenerative disorders.