Sophisticated postoperative complications limit the long-term clinical success of liver transplantation. Hence, early identification of biomarkers is essential for graft and patient survival. High-throughput serum proteomics technologies provide an opportunity to identify diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. This study is aimed to identify serum diagnosis biomarkers for complications and monitor effectiveness. Serum samples from 10 paired pre- and post-liver transplant patients, 10 acute rejection (AR) patients, 9 ischemic-type biliary lesion (ITBL) patients, and 10 healthy controls were screened using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to explore divergence in polypeptide. Then, we used ELISA and western blot analysis to validate the expression of these potential biomarkers, and studied the correlation of proteomic profiles with clinical parameters. ACLY, FGA, and APOA1 were significantly lower in pre-operative patients compared with healthy controls, and these patients had modest recovery after transplantation. Downregulation of both, ACLY and FGA, was also observed in AR and ITBL patients. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis was performed and the results suggested that the identified proteins were involved in glucolipid metabolism and the clotting cascade. Together, these findings suggest that ACLY, FGA, and APOA1 could be novel non-invasive and early biomarkers to detect complications and predict effectiveness of liver transplantation.