Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has known beneficial effects on the core motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), likely through induction of dopamine release and sensitivity of dopamine receptors. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can salvage loss of dopamine in PD through their differentiation into dopaminergic neurons. However, it is not known if combined ECT and MSC transplantation may have a synergistic effect against PD. Here, we showed that ECT significantly increased the differentiation of the transplanted MSCs into dopaminergic neurons in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of PD. On the other hand, transplantation of MSCs significantly increased dopamine levels after ECT. Co-application of ECT and MSC transplantation generated a synergistic effect through increases in dopamine and decreases in pro-inflammatory cytokines, resulting in significantly attenuated defect in stepping test and rotational behavior in MPTP-mice. Together, our data suggest that combined ECT and MSC transplantation can be a valuable treatment of PD.