Breast cancer (BC) remains a significant threat to the health of women; however, the mechanism underlying the initiation and progression of BC is poorly understood. We analyzed data from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and The Cancer Genome Atlas datasets to identify differentially expressed genes between BC and normal tissues. The roles of dCTP pyrophosphatase 1 (DCTPP1) and quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRT) in BC cells were investigated after knocking down or overexpressing the genes. The regulatory effects of Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule antisense RNA 1 (DSCAM-AS1) on DCTPP1 and QPRT expression were determined using luciferase reporter, RNA immunoprecipitation, RNA pull-down, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and fluorescence in situ hybridization assays. DCTPP1 and QPRT were overexpressed in BC compared to normal tissues. Overexpression of DCTPP1 and QPRT was associated with poor BC progression and promoted growth, migration, and invasion of MCF7 and T47D cells but inhibited apoptosis. DSCAM-AS1 increased QPRT expression via competitively binding miRNA-150-5p and miRNA-2467-3p. DSCAM-AS1 promoted DCTPP1 gene transcription by affecting H3K27 acetylation and enhanced DCTPP1 mRNA stability by binding to the 3′ untranslated region, which collectively resulted in DCTPP1 overexpression. Overall, DSCAM-AS1 knockdown decreased both DCTPP1 and QPRT expression, inhibiting the growth, migration, and invasion of estrogen receptor-positive BC.