Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic and recurrent nonspecific inflammatory disorders, including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Due to the persistent inflammation of intestinal mucosa caused by immune disorders, barrier dysfunction may be an essential cause of the pathogenesis of IBD. Therefore, exploring the mechanism is very important to clarify the pathogenesis of IBD. In our research, we provided evidence of IL-21 function in IBD. The junction complex protein claudin-5 may be a downstream gene of the IL-21. Anti-IL-21 administrated prevented DSS-simulative colitis via recovering claudin-5 expression in the human colonic epithelial cells. Meanwhile, we described that miR-423-5p could be involved in IL-21/ claudin-5 pathway by regulating NF-κB/MAPKs/JNK signaling pathway, which may provide a new therapeutic target for IBD.