Aging is the primary driver of various diseases, including common neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Currently there is no cure for AD and PD, and the development of novel drug candidates is demanding. Spermidine is a small anti-aging molecule with elimination of damaged mitochondria via the process of mitophagy identified as a molecular mechanism of action. Here, we show that spermidine inhibits memory loss in AD worms and improves behavioral performance, e.g., locomotor capacity, in a PD worm model, both via the PINK1-PDR1-dependent mitophagy pathway. Additionally, spermidine delays accelerated aging and improves healthspan in the DNA repair-deficient premature aging Werner syndrome (WS) worm model. While possible intertwined interactions between mitophagy/autophagy induction and DNA repair by spermidine are to be determined, our data support further translation of spermidine as a possible therapeutic intervention for such diseases.