Caudate dopaminergic dysfunction is implied in the pathophysiology of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Still, connectivity specificities of the caudate nucleus (CN) subdivisions and the effect of dopamine are poorly understood. We collected MRI and neuropsychological data from 34 PD patients and 26 age- and sex-matched healthy elderly individuals (HEs) in this study. Resting-state functional connectivity analysis revealed that compared to the other CN subdivisions, the CN head was more strongly connected to the default mode network (DMN), the CN body to the frontoparietal network (FPN), and the CN tail to the visual network in HEs. PD patients off medication showed reduced connectivity within all these subdivision networks. In PD patients on medication, functional connectivity in the CN head network was significantly improved in the medial prefrontal cortex and in the body network it was improved in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These improvements contributed to ameliorated motivation and cognitive function in PD patients. Our results highlighted the specific alterations and dopamine modulation in these CN subdivision networks in PD, which may provide insight into the pathophysiology and therapeutics of this disease.