Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is the cancer arising from the esophagus, which frequently develop from Barrett’s esophagus (BE). Extracellular vesicles (EVs), particularly exosomes, are nanosized vesicles of endosomal origin released from various types of cells that have been implicated in cancers. However, the significance of circulating exosomes during the progression of BE to EAC remains unknown. Sera exosmal microRNAs were profiled from 13 EAC and 12BE patients compared to 12 healthy controls. We found a substantial dysregulation of exosomal miRNA levels in BE compared to healthy control, and identified a unique signature of 24 up regulated and 14 down regulated miRNAs. Further validation showed exosomal miR-196a, -26b, -21, and -143 expression was significantly higher in BE and continued to have higher levels in EAC compared to healthy controls; while sera exosomal miR-378, -210, -205, and -200c-3p were significantly lower expressed in BE patients compared to compared to controls. Further, miR-378, -210, -205, and -200c-3p continue to have even lower levels in EAC patients compared to BE. Interestingly, sera expression levels of exosomal miR-15a, -16, and -193a-3p were significantly down regulated in BE PD-L1(+) patients; Sera exosomal miR-15a, -15b, -16, and -193a-3p expression levels in EAC PD-L1(+) patients were significantly lower (all p < 0.01) when compared to EAC PD-L1(-) patients. More importantly, the BE-EAC group had longitudinally decreased exosomal expression levels of miR-15a, -15b, -16, and -193a-3p from BE status to their EAC progression. In conclusion, distinct microRNA expression patterns were demonstrated in circulating exosomes from Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma; Furthermore exosomal microRNAs potentially targeting PD-L1 mRNA were down regulated in PD-L1 (+) BE and EAC patients.