Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 18 pp 18274—18296
MSC-derived exosomes promote recovery from traumatic brain injury via microglia/macrophages in rat
- 1 Center of Excellence in Tissue Engineering, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences and School of Basic Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing Key Laboratory of New Drug Development and Clinical Trial of Stem Cell Therapy, Beijing 100005, China
- 2 Department of Vascular Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100005, China
- 3 Department of Oncology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100005, China
- 4 Department of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100005, China
Received: February 10, 2020 Accepted: June 1, 2020 Published: September 23, 2020https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.103692
How to Cite
Copyright: © 2020 Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young individuals worldwide. There is currently no effective clinical treatment for TBI, but mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes have exhibited promising therapeutic effects. In this study, we performed intracerebroventricular microinjection of human adipose mesenchymal stem cell (hADSC)-derived exosomes (hADSC-ex) in a weight-drop-induced TBI rat model. We found that hADSC-ex promoted functional recovery, suppressed neuroinflammation, reduced neuronal apoptosis, and increased neurogenesis in TBI rats. The therapeutic effects of hADSC-ex were comparable to those of hADSC. Sequential in vivo imaging revealed increasing aggregation of DiR-labeled hADSC-ex in the lesion area. Immunofluorescent staining of coronal brain sections and primary mixed neural cell cultures revealed distinct overlap between CM-DiI-labeled hADSC-ex and microglia/macrophages, indicating that hADSC-ex were mainly taken up by microglia/macrophages. In a lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory model, hADSC-ex suppressed microglia/macrophage activation by inhibiting nuclear factor κB and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. These data suggest that hADSC-ex specifically enter microglia/macrophages and suppress their activation during brain injury, thereby inhibiting inflammation and facilitating functional recovery. They also offer new insight into the cellular targeting, uptake and migration of hADSC-ex, and provide a theoretical basis for new therapeutic strategies for central nervous system diseases.