Oxidative stress and autophagy are the key promoters of calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis. Taurine is an antioxidant that plays a protective role in the pathogenesis of kidney disease. Previous studies found that taurine suppressed cellular oxidative stress, and inhibited autophagy activation. However, the effect of taurine on CaOx kidney stone formation remains unknown. In the present work, we explored the regulatory effects of taurine on CaOx crystals-induced HK-2 cell injury. Results showed that pretreatment with taurine significantly enhanced the viability of HK-2 cells and ameliorated kidney tissue injury induced by CaOx crystals. Taurine also markedly reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis, and CaOx crystals deposition. Furthermore, we observed that taurine supplementation alleviated CaOx crystals-induced autophagy. Mechanism studies showed that taurine reduced oxidative stress via increasing SOD activity, reducing MDA concentration, alleviating mitochondrial oxidative injury, and decreasing the production of intracellular ROS. Taurine treatment also effectively activated Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in CaOx crystals-induced HK-2 cells both in vitro and in vivo. In summary, the current study shows that taurine inhibits ROS-dependent autophagy via activating Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in CaOx crystals-induced HK-2 cell and kidney injury, suggesting that taurine may serve as an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of CaOx nephrolithiasis.