Glioma is the most common malignant brain tumor. Because of its high degree of malignancy, the effect of surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy is not ideal. TXNDC9 belongs to thioredoxin domain-containing proteins, which is involved in tumor progression. However, no research associated with TXNDC9 has been reported in glioma. In this study, we found that TXNDC9 was upregulated in glioma. Knockdown of TXNDC9 would prevent proliferation and metastasis, induce the apoptosis rate of glioma cells, and promote the expression Cleaved-caspase3, Cleaved-caspase8, Cleaved-caspase9. Meanwhile, knockdown of TXNDC9 induced autophagy by increasing the level of LC3 and Beclin-1. Cell morphology and expression analysis of GFAP, Vimentin, verified that TXNDC9 could regulate glioma cell differentiation. During this program, the expression of p53 changes dramatically. The apoptosis, autophagy, and cell differentiation program were blocked by p53 inhibitor treatment. In conclusion, the silencing of TXNDC9 induces apoptosis and autophagy in glioma and promotes cell differentiation by controlling p53 and may function as a new mechanism in glioma.